# Import and Export

Importing macro_rules! macros differs between the two Rust Editions, 2015 and 2018. It is recommended to read both parts nevertheless, as the 2018 Edition can still use the constructs that are explained in the 2015 Edition.

## Edition 2015

In Edition 2015 you have to use the #[macro_use] attribute that has already been introduced in the scoping chapter. This can be applied to either modules or external crates. For example:

#[macro_use]
mod macros {
macro_rules! X { () => { Y!(); } }
macro_rules! Y { () => {} }
}

X!();

fn main() {}


macro_rules! macros can be exported from the current crate using #[macro_export]. Note that this ignores all visibility.

Given the following definition for a library package macs:

mod macros {
#[macro_export] macro_rules! X { () => { Y!(); } }
#[macro_export] macro_rules! Y { () => {} }
}

// X! and Y! are *not* defined here, but *are* exported,
// despite macros being private.


The following code will work as expected:

X!(); // X is defined
#[macro_use] extern crate macs;
X!();

fn main() {}


This works, as said in the scoping chapter, because #[macro_use] works slightly different on extern crates, as it basically hoists the exported macros out of the crate to the top of the module.

Note: you can only #[macro_use] an external crate from the root module.

Finally, when importing macro_rules! macros from an external crate, you can control which macros you import. You can use this to limit namespace pollution, or to override specific macros, like so:

// Import *only* the X! macro.
#[macro_use(X)] extern crate macs;

// X!(); // X is defined, but Y! is undefined

macro_rules! Y { () => {} }

X!(); // X is defined, and so is Y!

fn main() {}


When exporting macro_rules! macros, it is often useful to refer to non-macro symbols in the defining crate. Because crates can be renamed, there is a special substitution variable available: $crate. This will always expand to an absolute path prefix to the containing crate (e.g. :: macs). Note that unless your compiler version is >= 1.30, this does not work for macro_rules! macros, because macro_rules! macros do not interact with regular name resolution in any way. Otherwise, you cannot use something like $crate::Y! to refer to a particular macro within your crate. The implication, combined with selective imports via #[macro_use] is that there is currently no way to guarantee any given macro will be available when imported by another crate.

It is recommended that you always use absolute paths to non-macro names, to avoid conflicts, including names in the standard library.

## Edition 2018

The 2018 Edition made our lives a lot easier when it comes to macro_rules! macros. Why you ask? Quite simply because it managed to make them feel more like proper items than some special thing in the language. What this means is that we can properly import and use them in a namespaced fashion!

So instead of using #[macro_use] to import every exported macro from a crate into the global namespace we can now do the following:

use some_crate::some_macro;

fn main() {
some_macro!("hello");
// as well as
some_crate::some_other_macro!("macro world");
}


Unfortunately, this only applies for external crates, if you use macro_rules! macros that you have defined in your own crate you are still required to go with #[macro_use] on the defining modules. So scoping applies there the same way as before as well.

The \$crate prefix works in this version for everything, macros and items alike since this Edition came out with Rust 1.31.